Kochia is an annual forb growing from 2 to 5 feet tall beginning in late spring. Stems are erect, much-branched and leafy. Leaves, arranged alternately on the stems, turn bright red with age. Interest in the plant as a feed source has been high because it can produce the same amount of forage per acre as alfalfa with half the water; hence, the plant is often called “poor man’s alfalfa.”
An annual plant originating in Eurasia, kochia was introduced into America in the early 1900s. Its appearance was first recorded in Texas during the late 1940s. Found throughout most of the United States, it occurs locally on disturbed sites and in old fields.
The plant contains a number of agents that could contribute to its toxicity: oxalates, alkaloids, saponins, nitrate and sulfate. Oxalates bind calcium, and a rapid drop in blood calcium levels can cause sudden death.
The saponins may damage the liver in some animals, causing photosensitization. Other cases may develop polioencephalomalacia, possibly because of the high sulfate.
Several potential syndromes from kochia poisonings include (see Animal Conditions for specific signs): Polioencephalomalacia (“polio”); Oxalate poisoning; Photosensitization; Liver damage; Nitrate poisoning.
Seed Type: Non-Encapsulated
Stem Texture: Hairless/Smooth
Growth Habit: Forbs/Broadleaf
Distribution refers to the ecological region in Texas that a plant has been found. You can also view a clickable map.
Book: Toxic Plants of Texas (B-6105)
Livestock Affected: Cattle, Goats, Horses, Sheep
Livestock Signs: Blindness, Convulsions, Excitability, Incoordination, Nitrate Poisoning, Sudden Death