Nuttall Deathcamas, Deathcamas_94_Deathcamas 02

Nuttall Deathcamas, Deathcamas

Zigadenus nuttallii

Liliaceae (Lily family)


Description

Nuttall deathcamas is a perennial herb arising from a bulb with a black, papery outer coating. Its unbranched, erect, leafy stalk grows to 15 to 30 inches tall. The mostly basal, curved leaves may be up to 15 inches long on larger specimens. The stalk terminates in a yellowish-white spike of flowers that give rise to egg-like seed capsules.


Habitat

Nuttall deathcamas is found in the eastern third of Texas on open prairies, on hillsides with calcareous rocks and in post oak areas. This plant is seldom noticed except for the short period when it is in bloom.


Toxic Agent

Deathcamas contains alkaloids toxic to all livestock species, but it causes very few poisonings because it is unpalatable. Animals consuming as little as 0.25 percent of their body weight of green plants may display signs of poisoning in a few hours. Sheep have been known to eat the young plants in early spring when other forage is scarce. However, most of the deathcamas in Texas grows where there are few sheep. Humans have been poisoned after mistaking the bulbs for onions.


Signs of Livestock Ingestion

The clinical signs may include: Salivation; Vomiting; Depression; Weakness; Weak irregular pulse; Difficulty breathing; Coma; Death, Plant material may be identified in the rumen of dead animals.

 


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